What Are the Three Resume Formats?
The chronological format (also known as the reverse-chronological format) is the most popular resume format. The chronological resume emphasizes your work history section, where you list information about current and past jobs, with the most recent job first (thus the format’s name).
The key to unlocking this format is focusing on unique, detailed work achievements that show you’ve made steady, significant progress in your career. You should also highlight key skills that fit what the job is looking for.
How To Create a Chronological Resume:
In a few sentences, give an overview of your top qualifications for the job, with an emphasis on your career highlights.
Don’t list standard, mundane tasks -- instead, present accomplishments that make you stand out, using specifics when possible (e.g., “Managed benefits for office team of 55 employees”).
Feature skills you have that are most relevant to the specific job you’re applying to, with a mix of practical skills (such as specific software or technical knowledge) and soft skills (such as communication abilities, or attention to detail)
Present your highest academic credential (e.g., college degree), along with the name of the institution where you got the credential. You can also include specific certifications or courses you’ve taken that apply to the job you’re interested in.
Chronological Format Pros and Cons
- Preferred format of recruiters and hiring managers
- Provides a concise snapshot of your work history
- Easy to see your career progression and important skills
- Any employment gaps are noticeable
- Not the best format if you don’t have much career experience (e.g., you’re a first-time job seeker, or are switching over from a different career)
- Not the best fit if your career doesn’t follow a standard progression
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When you think of “function,” you think of skills and abilities that fulfill your work duties — in other words, your work functions. The functional resume format thus concentrates on all the skills and training you have that fit the job, rather than career experience.
In a functional resume, your skills are broken into important subcategories (e.g., “Technical Skills,” or “Soft Skills”). Be sure to tailor your skills sections to fit the skills that the specific job needs. Your education section should also feature any specialized classes or training that pertain to the job you want.
How To Create a Functional Resume:
As with a chronological resume, describe your best attributes as an employee, emphasizing your skills that match what the employer is looking for.
2Summary of Qualifications
In place of a work history section, describe your best qualifications: the specific abilities that you’ve picked up through training, previous work or extracurricular activities that are your calling card as an employee.
Organize your skills into categories for easy scanning, including technical skills (knowledge that applies to the specific job, such as knowledge of branch circuit wiring for an electrician job) as well as important intangible skills (such as teamwork, a strong work ethic, or problem-solving abilities).
Keep this section to-the-point, listing any previous positions or professional experiences, names of the companies you’ve worked for, and your dates of employment.
In addition to your academic credentials, supply details on relevant additional training or certifications (e.g., certification in Adobe Creative Suite for graphic design work).
Functional Format Pros and Cons
- Useful format for recent graduates or first-time job seekers
- Excellent for highlighting skills, particularly transferable skills across jobs or industries
- Good format for presenting a wide range of qualifications
- Emphasis on skills rather than work history might not be great fit for jobs that require experience
- Not the best format for job seekers who can show off consistent career development and achievements at previous jobs
- Applicant tracking systems (ATS) can have difficulties scanning this format
The combination (or hybrid) resume format combines elements of both the chronological and functional formats, wedding a meaty skills section with details on work achievements.
Combination resumes can work for a variety of circumstances — if you have a few years of experience in a particular field and are applying for a higher-level job, this format can feature career progression and key skills. It’s also a good option if you’re switching careers, but can feature “transferable” achievements and skills from previous jobs.
How To Create a Combination Resume:
Provide a 2-3 sentence summation of your best skills and work experiences. If you’re coming from a different job field, this is also your opportunity to explain how your skills and experiences from previous positions fit your new career path.
A combination resume splits your skills into two sections: a summary of skills, and a key skills section. In your skills summary, describe your prime abilities, referencing how you’ve used them in previous jobs. Your key skills section will focus on specific abilities that address requirements from the specific job you’re applying to.
As with the chronological format, focus on unique achievements from previous jobs, quantifying your results whenever possible (e.g., “Improved on accounting processes, gaining $4 million for company in last fiscal year”). Zero-in on accomplishments that can be applied to your new job or career (e.g., highlight your mathematics skills and attention to detail from an accountant job if you’re applying for a statistician position).
Present your top academic achievements (e.g., high school diploma or graduate degree), and additional training that has a bearing on the job your want (e.g., First Aid and CPR training for a medical assistant job).
Combination Format Pros and Cons
- Skills and work experience share the spotlight in this format
- Emphasizes relevant work highlights rather than your whole career
- Contextualizes your skills in your work achievements
- Not a great fit for first-time job seekers, or workers who lack experience
- Skills and work achievements must complement each other for format to be effective
- Format can be difficult for applicant tracking systems (ATS) to scan
Which Resume Format Is Right for You?
7 Key Resume Format Tips
Follow these proven tips to create your own world-class resume.
1. Make sure your resume is formatted for ATS.
Employers often use applicant tracking systems (ATS) to scan incoming resumes, and give them a thumbs-up or down depending on whether they fit the criteria employers are looking for, such as having the right keywords. Above all, your resume should be formatted in a way that makes it easy for an ATS to read — that means no unusual layouts, fonts or graphics. Keep your resume design straightforward, and you’ll be in better shape to pass an ATS. Our resume templates are a great place to start.
2. Keep to the right length.
The general rule of thumb with resume length is to not go beyond 2 pages. By the same token, don’t try to squeeze 20 years of work history into a single page — focus on detailed information about your experiences. Recent grads and those applying for entry-level roles should always keep it to one page.
3. Keep your section headings straightforward.
Use our examples as a guide for how to title each section of your resume. This is especially important for passing ATS scans, which will be looking for standardized titles such as “Summary” or “Work History.” Now is not the time to get creative with headings, and come up with unusual titles such as “Great Stuff from Past Jobs.”
4. Sell yourself from the start.
Make the hiring manager sit up and take notice instantly with a concise, engaging summary. Think of it as your 30-second elevator pitch, in which the product you’re pitching is yourself. Provide a succinct overview of your experience or background, two or three valuable skill sets, and some key soft skills. Your summary alone should provide enough information to encourage a recruiter to read on.
5. Include your most relevant qualifications and expertise.
Check out the job description and see what the employer needs. For example, if the job calls for “communication skills” and knowledge of Photoshop, include these proficiencies if you have them. Here’s a secret: The most important skills a role requires are usually listed closer the top of the job ad, while less important ones are at the bottom.
6. Make your experience pack a punch.
Your experience section should be concise and focused. Come up with 3-5 bullet points for each previous job, noting outstanding contributions in each position. Use specific metrics and data to describe projects and actions that resulted in positive outcomes (e.g., “Instituted new inventory process that saved company $75,000 over previous year”).
7. Use action verbs.
Capture the attention of a hiring manager or recruiter by using strong action verbs to describe current and past achievements. For example, using words like “managed,” “executed,” and “oversaw” gives you ownership of your achievements, compared to using words like “responsible for” or “accountable for.”
Resume Format FAQ
1. Which resume format do employers prefer?
Bottom line: companies prefer an organized resume that best presents your qualifications. Whichever format you pick — chronological, functional or combination/hybrid — make sure it does the best job of highlighting your achievements and skills. Use our Resume Builder to ensure a high-quality resume in the right format.
2. What is the best resume format for a college student?
The functional resume is a good choice for students and recent graduates, who usually have little to no relevant work experience. However, if you’ve had a part-time job, volunteer position, or internship, or have taken a relevant class that relates to the job you want, be sure to include these experiences in your work history or education sections.
3. What is the best resume format for an experienced job seeker?
The chronological resume format is best for experienced job seekers. This format focuses on your work history, so you can use the bulk of the page discussing your past duties and accomplishments. You can also mention specific professional milestones you’ve achieved over the years. Hiring managers like seeing your entire job history at a glance. Create the perfect chronological resume with these tips.
4. What is the best resume format for someone who has had the same job for over 20 years?
A combination resume format is best in this situation. Emphasize the skills you’ve acquired over your career as well as specific job highlights, showing employers how you’ve developed professionally over this timespan, even if you’ve kept the same job title. Our resume builder provides suggestions in these areas along with other tools to further polish your resume.
More Resume Format Resources
Need more guidance and tips on each resume format, as well as free templates you can use to create your resume? Just use these resources: